How should lactating sow farmers properly control nutrition?
2019-09-19 10:27:39 Click:
The sow has a heavy burden during lactation. If insufficient nutrients are supplied, the weight of the sow will exceed the normal range.
1 Nutritional requirements of lactating sows
During the suckling period, the sow needs to secrete a lot of milk. Generally, it can secrete 200-300kg within 60 days, and the good sow can reach about 450kg. Therefore, the sow's material metabolism during lactation, especially during the lactation period (30 days before lactation) is much higher than that of empty sows, and the amount of feed required is significantly increased. High, the heat energy per kilogram of milk is about 5.225MJ / kg digestive energy, and the utilization rate of pigs using digestive energy to convert milk into net energy is about 60%, so the digestive energy of pig milk is 2.083MJ. Each additional piglet in the diet provided 1.19 MJ / kg of digestive energy. This is equivalent to 0.4 kg of a diet containing 12.98 MJ / kg of digestive energy. According to experiments, using a diet containing 12.9831 MJ of digestive energy per kilogram, for a sow feeding 5 piglets, 4 kg of diet can be fed, one litter When there are more than 5 piglets, each additional piglet needs to be fed an additional 0.4 kg of diet. With 10 piglets, 6 kg of diet should be fed daily.
The energy content of pig milk can be calculated, and the calorie content per kilogram of milk can be calculated by the formula: the thermal energy value of milk (MJ / kg), the second milk fat (kg) × 38.5856 + milk protein (kg) × 24.361 + lactose (kg) × 16.5194 lactating sows need to digest about 594g of crude protein per day, and the maintenance needs to be calculated based on the energy-to-fat ratio of 40: 1. If a lactating sow weighs 140kg and has 10 litters, the daily maintenance needs to digest crude protein (90 × 140 ) / 40 = 92g; In addition, each piglet needs 47g of digestible crude protein, and a total of 470g is required for 10 litters, so the lactating sow needs 562g of digested crude protein.
Pig milk contains about 6% protein, and the utilization rate of digested crude protein in feed is about 70%. Therefore, 86 kg of digestible crude protein per kilogram of pig milk is required. The protein in milk contains 7.59% of lysine, 1.30% of tryptophan, and 1.36% of methionine. Therefore, to ensure the requirements of essential amino acids, in the case of unlimited diet, The crude protein level reached 14%, which did not reduce the number of bred, lactation, and milk protein did not affect the development of piglets.
Postpartum sows have weak constitution and poor digestion. Normally, they can resume normal diet within 5 days after delivery. Therefore, when feeding postpartum sows, it is necessary to add less ground and gradually increase the feed supply. It is usually fed 3-4 times a day, and the feeding amount to the seventh day should reach or slightly exceed the feeding standard in the third trimester. If the feed is too little, the piglets grow slowly; if the feed is too high, the sow's milk secretion is too high, which can easily cause piglet indigestion and cause sow top feeding, which affects the medium-term feeding.
For individual sows with fewer piglets, the feeding standard can be reduced below the normal level. If the sow in the primiparous sow is poor, but the appetite is normal, the feeding amount can be appropriately increased, feeding 0.4kg more daily. The overall feeding principle is that the feeding amount in this period must be about 0.5kg more than that in the late pregnancy.
From 8 to 13 days after sow, feed can be prepared according to lactation diet standards. If it is found that the piglets grow slowly or diarrhea, some high-protein feeds such as fish meal and bean cake can be supplemented.
Feeding must be regular and quantitative, and the feed must be diversified to meet the nutritional requirements of lactating sows. In addition to providing clean drinking water every day, some high-quality juicy green feed must be fed.
At this time, the principle of "satisfying, eating well and eating" should be mastered for sow feeding. At 15 days after sow, the sow should be fed once a day in the middle of the night to avoid sow feeding due to excessive feeding during the day. If the sow has a strong appetite and a bad mood, feed can be added a few days in advance, instead the feed should be postponed as appropriate. Before starting piglets, try to encourage sows to lactate as much as possible so that piglets can eat more milk. In this way, the gastrointestinal development of piglets can be developed normally, and conditions can be created for food intake and food intake.
After the piglets reach 20 days of age, their activity gradually increases, and their nutritional requirements increase, and the sow's milk production cannot meet the requirements of the piglets. So it is very important to feed the piglets in time at this time.
Feeding should be stopped 30 days after sow until weaning. This period is the last link in the sow production process, which is not only related to the sow's potential to give birth in one year, but also to the growth and development of piglets. Sows should be protected after one month of delivery. In this way, not only to ensure that the sow has a certain estrus, to prevent the sow from paralysis after delivery, but also to ensure that the sow is in estrus on time, which is conducive to future reproduction.
5 countermeasures for low or no milk postpartum
The most common cases are: poor management of sows during pregnancy, especially low levels of sows in late pregnancy, sow weight loss, and poor mammary gland development; sows are old and frail, lose appetite, indigestion, and inadequate nutrition; sow pregnancy During the feeding period, a large amount of carbohydrate feed was given, but the protein, vitamins and minerals were insufficiently supplied; the sows were overweight and had endocrine disorders; the sows were of poor constitution and had not been sterilized in their pens; In order to overcome the above situation, it is necessary to do a good job in the management of sows, timely elimination of aging sows, and disinfection of the pens and nursing care. For sows with thin and dry breasts, they can be fed with prolactin feed, such as soy milk, bran soup, millet porridge, and fish soup, etc .; also use traditional Chinese medicine to promote milk (prescription: 30g of wooden Tong, 30g of fennel, decoction with water, mix a small amount Thin porridge, fed 2 times).
Nutrition level and feed quality are the main factors that affect the amount of lactation, especially when a higher nutrition level is given during pregnancy, which will reduce the lactation of lactating sows; if given a lower nutrition level, sows will lose more weight But it has little effect on the number of piglets and litter weight. If the nutritional requirements of the sow cannot be met during the lactation period, the sow's lactation potential cannot be fully utilized. The nutritional level, feeding amount, environmental conditions and management measures of lactating sow feed can affect sow lactation.
The quality of management also has a greater impact on lactation. A quiet and comfortable environment is conducive to lactation. Therefore, the amount of lactation at night is higher than that during the day. Rough treatment of sows, easy changes in work schedules and changes in climatic conditions will affect lactation.
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